What is dandruff?
Dandruff is a chronic, non-inflammatory condition of the scalp characterized by excessive scaling of the epidermis. As a rule, dandruff is a manifestation of seborrheic dermatitis, a feature of which is an increased secretion of sebum, and in severe cases, the formation of plaques. With a mild course of pathology, flakes (dandruff) will be visible on the scalp, more severe cases are manifested by itching.
Causes of dandruff
There are a large number of factors that can cause flaking of the scalp in chunks, so determining the exact cause of dandruff can be quite difficult.
Here are the most common causes of severe dandruff:
- Hyperproduction of the sebaceous glands;
- Abundant reproduction of a fungal infection on the surface of the scalp;
- A heap of skin cells due to insufficient hygiene;
- Using hair products that dry out the skin;
- Frequent shampooing for sensitive skin:
- Overgrowth of skin cells under the influence of the fungus Malassezia;
- Using personal care products that are not suitable for your skin type;
- Excessive insolation;
- Friction when wearing hats;
- Improper nutrition;
- genetic predisposition;
- The presence of serious diseases;
- Hormonal changes (puberty, pregnancy, menopause);
- Impact of stress factors.
The main symptoms of dandruff are flakes in the head and itchy skin. Deterioration is often found in autumn and winter under the influence of dry air.
Additional symptoms of dandruff include:
- red patches on the scalp or erythema
- excessive hair loss
- dry dandruff in the eyebrow area
- scaly flakes on the skin of the face
- thinning and loss of hair quality
- excessive oiliness or vice versa dryness of the scalp
- crust formation.
Anti-dandruff shampoos and scalp treatments are the best way to get rid of seborrhea in chunks.
The active ingredients of such shampoos and care products are:
- Selenium sulfide - regulates the sebaceous glands, normalizes the condition of the scalp;
- Salicylic acid - has a bactericidal effect, provides an exfoliating effect of dead scalp cells;
- Ketoconazole - has an antifungal effect that inhibits the activity of Malassezia;
- Burdock and other oils - reduce the secretion of subcutaneous fat, have antibacterial and regenerating properties.
- Coal tar - helps to defeat the fungus, relieves inflammation.
- Pyrithione zinc - has an anti-seborrheic effect, relieves peeling once and for all.
- Boric acid - has an astringent and antiseptic effect, removes itching of the head.
- Lactobacillus fermentation extract - kills pathogenic microorganisms, improves immunity, restores the balance of the microbiota of the scalp.
- Rice fermentation extract - stimulates the synthesis of collagen in the scalp, normalizes the structure of long hair, neutralizes the action of toxins.
- Amino acid L-Arginine - affects the epidermis of the scalp, reducing the processes of keratinization.